Five Steps to Science:
Observing, Scoring, Measuring, Analyzing,
"Science progresses by dialogue between the inner world of abstract ideas and the outer word of concrete experience. Ideas are hypothetical guidelines. Experience brings them to life.
Experience is tangible. But it needs ideas to become useful. Raw experience is chaotic. Guidelines are necessary to organize perceptions of reality, to make them recognizable, and to make some sense of them.
Science is the conversation between ideas and experience. We require ideas to recognize reality. We require experience to nudge ideas into new shapes. This dialogue is the relationship between ideas and experience out of which all knowledge evolves. This is the method of science. Science is not facts but method, not data but interpretation of data, not just experience but also idea.
The scientific tasks of psychometrics are pursued by working through a dialogue of five successive procedural models. Articulating these models enables focus and reduces confusion. Explicating a model for each step focuses attention on the specific problem addressed at that step."